What is a probe card?
A probe card is a consumable interface
used during inspection of semiconductor wafer for defects.
The probe card create a route for electrical signals
from Semiconductor Automatic Testing Machines(ATM),
passing signals generated by a ATM to the chip,
and sending the response from the chip to the ATM.
The difficulty lies in positioning up to 50,000 probes
to touch exact position at exact height
with tolerance of few microns overcoming
temperature variations. Also the signal passing
to and fro must maintain its integrity,
which is getting more difficult due to faster chips.